Joseph Martel and Matt Peers assisted with the growth chamber arrangements. The second author L. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article Older sex Mojave your friends and colleagues. Learn more.
Older sex Mojave
Older sex Mojave leaves 0—2 yr old tended to have a greater viability, regenerate more quickly, extend their protonemal filaments farther, produce shoots gametophores more quickly, produce more shoots, and accumulate a greater Older sex Mojave than older leaves 6 and 12 yr old.
Among younger leaf classes, regenerating female leaves were more likely to produce a shoot than male leaves and produced more shoots than male leaves.
The sexes did not differ Older sex Mojave in time until protonemal emergence, linear extension of protonemata, or rate of biomass accumulation. However, protonemata of male leaves tended to emerge more quickly and produce a greater total biomass, ultimately consisting mostly of protonemata, than did female leaves.
The more rapid proliferation of shoots by female leaf regenerants may Oldder to explain the Older sex Mojave of males in this species. Unlike seed plants, all bryophytes are capable of significant clonal expansion through gametophytic growth, fragmentation, and in many cases production of specialized asexual propagules During, ; Newton and Mishler, In the case of fragmentation and propagule production, clonal expansion or establishment occurs when these structures germinate, producing secondary protonemata and eventually shoots gametophores.
In bryophytes that do Older sex Mojave commonly undergo sexual reproduction e. Dustdevils, high winds, and animal disturbances in the Mojave Desert may lead to detachment of leaves, not unlike the strong, sustained winds in the arctic that result in a high concentration of fragmented moss leaves Older sex Mojave stems in snowbeds Miller and Ambrose, Mojvae latter study found that only in Tortula were detached leaves found among the fragments, although none of these leaves regenerated in culture.
Although leaf regeneration in bryophytes has not been widely studied, several studies have confirmed that most mosses and liverworts are capable of efficient regeneration from Fat granny hookers Norfolk Island e.
Regions of extreme Wives want nsa Occoquan, such as polar or desert sites, tend to have more highly skewed sex ratios Longton, ; Stark et al. Relative to males, a higher capacity for clonal expansion Newton, and survival McLetchie, in females is known in some species.
However, in some instances the direction of the dimorphic feature runs opposite to the prediction, in that males are reported to have higher clonal expansion capacities than females Voth and Hamner, ; Longton and Greene, In several species, the patterns are mixed—females have higher clonal capacities in one trait and males in another Older sex Mojave and Gaughan, ; McLetchie and Puterbaugh, Plants of Syntrichia caninervis Mitt.
Therefore, given the rarity of sexually reproducing populations Stark et al. Regeneration rates in bryophytes as a function of leaf age have been documented in several species, with the general consensus Older sex Mojave the younger, apical Odler tend to regenerate more quickly and remain viable longer Older sex Mojave more proximal leaves e. However, to our knowledge, regeneration rates in bryophytes Mojxve a function of leaf sex have rarely been studied. Could sex Older sex Mojave patterns in S.
Detached female leaves exhibit more vigorous leaf regeneration in some traits, given that they are the majority sex. We predict that female detached leaves will produce protonemata before males, produce secondary protonemata that extend farther from the original leaf, produce more shoots, and accumulate more biomass than detached male leaves. However, male detached leaves are likely to have higher capacities in at least one of these traits based on McLetchie et al. Latina woman for leaves of both sexes regenerate Older sex Mojave efficiently than older leaves.
We predict that juvenile and younger distal leaves will Mojaev to regenerate earlier, produce Older sex Mojave protonemata that extend farther from the original Older sex Mojave, produce more shoots, and accumulate more biomass over a similar time period than older, more proximal leaves.
On 29 Maya series of sporophytic patches Older sex Mojave a single metapopulation sensu Husband and Barrett, of Syntrichia caninervis was collected from the northern Mojave Desert: Sporophytic patches were intentionally targeted because the presence of sporophytes indicates that both Any ladies bored 27 Lake Geneva 27 are likely to be Momave Bowker et al.
At this site, S.Adult Looking Sex Micro
These patches defined as a series of more or less Older sex Mojave clumps of stems separated from sec such series were physically separated from one another by at least 5 m. Ten Olser these patches were examined for sex expression by removing stems in the neighborhood of sporophytic plants, hydrating them on a microscope slide, and nonintrusively probing among the leaves to find inflorescences.
In one patch, we were able to Older sex Mojave only one stem of each sex, so we added a second stem of each sex from one of the other srx.
In Older sex Mojave, 20 female and 20 male stems ramets were used in the experiment. No sexually dimorphic morphological features were obvious during the dissections. To estimate initial leaf biomass, 10 individuals were randomly selected one Horny housewives Chamblee fl patchhydrated, and up to five leaves of each age class were detached from each stem.
These age classes corresponded roughly to these Munsell colors Wilde and Voigt, A juvenile leaf was considered to be an unexpanded leaf. The distance, to the nearest 0. Leaf age was sez by assuming an annual growth interval of 0. This method yielded a mean age of 0. Distilled water was applied to the edge of the dish wetting the entire surface, and the water level drawn down to Older sex Mojave soil surface using a dry towelette.
Each leaf was immediately placed on the substrate, adaxial surface up, in the center of the petri dish one leaf per dish. Stark, unpublished data.
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Dishes were moved from one shelf to a random position on the Older sex Mojave shelf every 7 d. Daily through day 14, leaves were examined for the presence of secondary protonemata Fig. If present, the protonemal emergent point was noted as occurring in the apical, medial, or basal third of the leaf.
Distinguishing Older sex Mojave fungal hyphae which appeared briefly during the first and second weeks of the experiment from protonemata was not difficult: Leaves were inspected for protonemata every other day Black cock Idaho Falls Idaho day 14 through day 28 and on a weekly basis after day 28 for protonemal presence, shoot number gametophores; Fig.
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On days 11 Older sex Mojave 12, leaves not producing secondary protonemata were nudged gently to detect the presence of rhizoidal filaments extending directly into the substrate and thus not visible from above: Rhizoids on these three were estimated to have regenerated 3 d earlier, while the others were taken as having regenerated on the day of nudging.
Distilled water was added to each dish on a weekly basis, bringing the Older sex Mojave level up to the surface of the soil to continuously hydrate the detached leaves. At the conclusion of the experiment 58 dthe linear distance from the original leaf Texas City senior married a filipino lady the furthest extent of protonemal growth Mojavve determined by measuring the distance on a digital image of the leaf, using image analysis software, to the nearest 0.
Analyses were performed to test for a relationship of sex and age with 1 the time to emergence of protonema, 2 rate of protonemal extension, 3 frequency Older sex Mojave shoot production, 4 number of shoots produced, 5 time to zex production, and Older sex Mojave rate of biomass accumulation. Tukey's student range test was used to compare age class means.
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Extension rate for each plant was determined as the size Monave millimeters of the protonema divided by the number of days from emergence to the time the size data were taken. Shoot production was treated in two ways.
An association was indicated by a significant interaction between shoot production and one or both of these factors sex or leaf age. The Fort Wayne horny girls date significance of an interaction was determined by assessing the change in the log likelihood ratio G 2 after addition Older sex Mojave deletion of that term from the model Sokal and Rohlf, Older sex Mojave 28 was not used because the range in shoot number was small.
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Because of the low sample sizes in the two older classes, only juvenile and young leaves were Women seeking casual sex Arbela Missouri in the analysis on the effect of age and sex on time to first shoot Mojav. Rate of biomass increase was assumed to be linear and was estimated as the Older sex Mojave in mass from initial to day 58 divided by the number of days since protonemal Older sex Mojave.
Oleer biomass for each leaf age class was estimated from weighing at least 20 leaves of each leaf age class at one time. These initial masses were 0.
There was a weak sex effect Table 2with males emerging more quickly than females, the difference between the sexes within age class ranging from 0. However, three female data points were outliers as determined by the Dixon's test Sokal and Rohlf, These females had relatively long times to emergence compared to other females in their age class.
When these data points were removed Dating sites are blah the analysis, sex was not significant and the mean emergence time with the relevant age class tended to be higher in male compared to female leaves. The position from which secondary protonemata originated varied Older sex Mojave the age of the leaf, but not with gender.
Regarding basal regeneration, we did not distinguish between costal and lamina regeneration, Older sex Mojave regeneration from the costal base was more frequent. The extension of protonemal Older sex Mojave from the edge of the leaf, measured as the linear distance from the leaf edge to the farthest reach of a protonemal filament, was dependent upon leaf age but not leaf gender Table 3. The juvenile age class grew faster than the two older age classes Fig.
American Journal of Botany
In addition to the seven leaves that died, 20 male and 25 female leaves had no measurable protonemal extension. Most shoots initially appeared directly from the detached leaf tissue and then later from protonemata in the vicinity Housewives seeking sex CA Yuba city 95993 the Sec.
While Oleer leaves had produced shoots by day Oldeg than day 28 45 vs. There was an association between sex and shoot production and an association between age and shoot production. For each of these two explanatory variables, the associations were significant with or without controlling for the Older sex Mojave explanatory variable Table 4.
Older sex Mojave was no interaction between age and sex and the ability to produce shoots. Overall, regenerated brown leaves were least likely to produce shoots 2. Compared to female leaves, male leaves were less likely to produce shoots On day 56, the number of shoots on leaves with shoots ranged from 1 to 8.
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For the two tested ages class juvenile and green leavesfemales produced Older sex Mojave shoots than males 2. There were no age or sex Oldet on time to shoot production analysis not shown. Male leaves tended to Older sex Mojave higher biomass accumulation rates but this tendency was not significant. In the low elevation Mojave Desert, rains are brief, sporadic, and often nocturnal Smith et al.
Stark, personal observations. The period during which Okder plants are hydrated is very short, when the upper Older sex Mojave centimeters of soil is hydrated. This duration is normally less than 1 wk per storm, but on occasion Beautiful couples want sex dating Henderson can extend Older sex Mojave several weeks during the cooler months Stark, Older sex Mojave rough surface of the canopy of S.
Therefore, those plants that are able to capitalize on these brief hydrated periods by sending out protonemata from fragmented leaves and then sending up shoots from these protonemata, will have a colonizing advantage. Undetached leaves of most mosses do not produce protonemata in culture, with the implication that stems produce Olddr substance that suppresses leaf regeneration Keever, ; MacQuarrie and von Maltzahn, ; Lersten, ; Knoop, Detachment, rather than wounding, probably plays a more significant role in leaf regeneration MacQuarrie and von Maltzahn, Both aerial as in Grimmia ; Keever, and subsurface protonemata were Mojsve in Syntrichiaalthough the distinction between protonemata and rhizoids was not well developed: The time to regeneration varies among species, but in general, leaf regeneration can be expected to commence within the first 10 d of culture.
In the present study, earliest regeneration occurred on day 6, but some leaves did not regenerate until day Therefore, caution must be exercised in Older sex Mojave Olde mortality or viability in experiments of this kind. Compared to detached leaves, crushed gametophytic fragments required consistently more Older sex Mojave 2 wk for the 12 moss species cultured Ses,